Fiber optic transceiver modules are single unit packaged devices that functions as a receiver and transmitter. Also known as optical modules, fiber optical transceivers, and optics modules, these devices are vital aspects of optical network equipment. They contain electronic components crucial for conditioning, encoding, and/or decoding data.
Fiber optic transceiver modules use pulses of lights, a form of fiber optic technology, to transform router or switch electrical signals into optical signals that are easy to transmit and receive. Examples of light sources that allow data to be sent as light include DFB, FP, and VSCEL laser. Light pulses, like APD and Pin, are received through photodiode semiconductors.
Optical modules have several parts, the most common of which are optical transmitter, optical receiver, latch, label, transceiver shell, spring, and dust plug.
Fiber optic transceiver modules are useful for a variety of applications like:
- Fibre Channel
Other applications or products using these devices are routers, network interface cards, Ethernet switches, fiber media converters, and firewalls.
Fibre Channel storage switches, more popularly known as storage interface cards, also benefit from fiber optic transceiver modules.
Fiber optic transceiver modules are categorized into four types according to different requirements: by transmission rates, by fiber mode types, by package, and by transceiver applications.
- Classification via transmission rates - transmission rates refer to how many bits are transmitted every second. The rates are expressed in Gigabits per second (Gbps) or Megabits per second (Mbps). Classification of the fiber optic transceivers is according to the transmission rates – from 0.5Mpbs to 200Gbps.
- Classification by fiber mode types – optical modules are classified as multi-mode fiber (MMF) or single mode fiber (MMF).
- Classification by package – there many classifications for this category, some of which are SFF, CFP, CXP, CFP2, QSFP, XFP, QSFP28, X2, 200/3000pin, and SFP.
- Classification by transceiver applications – Fibre Channel, Broadcast Video, LTE, Ethernet, and CPRI.