Semiconductor ICs (integrated circuits) are devices that are equipped with circuitry elements like transistors. These products are set up on an insulating material. Semiconductor ICs are used for various electronic circuit-related products.
Semiconductors are generally made of geranium or silicon, or other pure elements. When a semiconductor is doped, its conductivity changes. This is because of the addition of impurities into the pure elements. The IC in “semiconductor IC” pertains to integrated circuits, which are small semiconductor materials, often rectangular or square, that have electronic circuits intended to perform computation and various other functions. ICs can be mixed signal, digital, or analog.
In 1949, Werner Jacobi, a German engineer, applied a patent for a semiconductor that worked like the present-day integrated circuits. He discovered that combining five transistors and an amplifier allowed him to create hearing aids and other small-sized devices that were more affordable. However, the first full-concept IC was actually introduced only three years later, through a British Ministry of Defence worker named Geoffrey Dummer. He was unable to build an IC on his own, though, so he spent most of his time lecturing about his IC concept.
US Army personal Jack Kilby came out with a prototype of the integrated circuit and in 1958, he introduced the first working IC. He received his patent a year later. His invention, described as a “work of an electronic circuit” was the reason for the term “integrated circuit”.
Kilby’s creation was significantly improved by Robert Noyce, a Fairchild Semiconductor employee who built an IC chip using silicon. He is credited not only for improving the Kilby IC but also for creating the IC chips that were used for the Apollo spacecraft’s trip to the moon. This signaled the transition of integrated circuits from being a military application to a commercial commodity intended for various electronic devices.